Conservation through Research, Awareness and Education

UK Registered Charity Number: 1145387

Scientific Publications

The majority of what we know today about manta rays and their close relatives has been discovered in just the last decade, so the science of these fascinating creatures is still very much in its infacy. There are still large gaps in our basic knowledge of many aspects of these rays lives’ and further research is urgently needed if we are to effectively protect these animals globally. Below is a comprehensive list of all the scientific literature which has been published by manta scientists around the world to date.

If you would like further information on any of these scientific publications please contact us.

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Journal Articles

Manta Rays

  • Alava, J., & Merlen, G. (2009). Video-documentation of a killer whale (Orcinus orca) predatory attack on a giant manta (Manta birostris) in the Galapagos Islands. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals, 7(December), 81-84. Retrieved from
  • Anderson, R. C., Adam, M. S., & Goes, J. I. (2011). From monsoons to mantas: seasonal distribution of Manta alfredi in the Maldives. Fisheries Oceanography, 20(2), 104-113. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2011.00571.x
  • Ari, C. (2011). Encephalization and Brain Organization of Mobulid Rays ( Myliobatiformes , Elasmobranchii ) with Ecological Perspectives. The Open Anatomy Journal, 3, 1-13.
  • Ari, C., & Correia, J. P. (2008). Role of sensory cues on food searching behavior of a captive Manta birostris (Chondrichtyes, Mobulidae). Zoo biology, 27(4), 294-304. doi:10.1002/zoo.20189
  • B. Clark, T. (2001). Population structure of Manta Birostris (Chondrichthyes: Mobulidae) from the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Direct. Texas A&M University.
  • Barton, O. (1948). Color Notes on Pacific Manta, Including a New Form. Copiea, (2), 146-147. Retrieved from
  • Clark, T. B., Papastamatiou, Y. P., & Meyer, C. G. (2007). Intestinal eversion in a free-ranging manta ray (Manta birostris). Coral Reefs, 27(1), 61-61. doi:10.1007/s00338-007-0305-z
  • Couturier, L. I. E., Jaine, F. R. A., Townsend, K. A., Weeks, S. J., Richardson, A. J., & Bennett, M. B. (2011). Distribution, site affinity and regional movements of the manta ray, Manta alfredi (Krefft, 1868), along the east coast of Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research, 62, 628-637. Retrieved from
  • Deakos, M. H. (2010). Ecology and social behavior of a resident manta ray (Manta alfredi) population off Maui, Hawaii. Population (English Edition). University of Hawaii.
  • Deakos, M. H. (2011). The reproductive ecology of resident manta rays (Manta alfredi) off Maui, Hawaii, with an emphasis on body size. Environmental Biology of Fishes. doi:10.1007/s10641-011-9953-5
  • Deakos, MH. (2010). Paired-laser photogrammetry as a simple and accurate system for measuring the body size of free-ranging manta rays Manta alfredi. Aquatic Biology, 10(1), 1-10. doi:10.3354/ab00258
  • Deakos, Mh, Baker, J., & Bejder, L. (2011). Characteristics of a manta ray Manta alfredi ­population off Maui, Hawaii, and implications for management. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 429, 245-260. doi:10.3354/meps09085
  • Dewar, H., Mous, P., Domeier, M., Muljadi, A., Pet, J., & Whitty, J. (2008). Movements and site fidelity of the giant manta ray, Manta birostris, in the Komodo Marine Park, Indonesia. Marine Biology, 155(2), 121-133. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-0988-x
  • Kitchen-Wheeler, A.-M. (2010). Visual identification of individual manta ray ( Manta alfredi ) in the Maldives Islands, Western Indian Ocean. Marine Biology Research, 6(4), 351-363. doi:10.1080/17451000903233763
  • Kitchen-Wheeler, A.-M., Ari, C., & Edwards, A. J. (2011). Population estimates of Alfred mantas (Manta alfredi) in central Maldives atolls: North Male, Ari and Baa. Environmental Biology of Fishes. doi:10.1007/s10641-011-9950-8
  • Luiz, O. J., Balboni, A. P., Kodja, G., Andrade, M., & Marum, H. (2008). Seasonal occurrences of Manta birostris (Chondrichthyes: Mobulidae) in southeastern Brazil. Ichthyological Research, 56(1), 96-99. doi:10.1007/s10228-008-0060-3
  • MacGlennon, G. (2008). Social structure and behaviour of the Manta ray (Manta birostris) in the Republic of the Maldives. MSc Thesis.
  • Marshall, A D., & Bennett, M. B. (2010). Reproductive ecology of the reef manta ray Manta alfredi in southern Mozambique. Journal of Fish Biology, 77(1), 169-90. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02669.x
  • Marshall, A D. (2009). Zootaxa, Redescription of the genus Manta with resurrection of Manta alfredi… Zootaxa, 28, 1 – 28.
  • Marshall, A D., Pierce, S. J., & Bennett, M. B. (2008). Morphological measurements of manta rays (Manta birostris) with a description of a foetus from the east coast of Southern Africa. Zootaxa, 30, 24 – 30.
  • PIER, & TNC. (2001). – DRAFT – Komodo Marine Park Manta Rays : Acoustic Tagging Report. Environmental Research (pp. 1-8).
  • Romanov, E. V. (2010). Mobulidae of the Indian Ocean : an identification hints for field sampling.
  • Yano, K., Sato, F., & Takahashi, T. (1999). Observations of mating behavior of the manta ray, Manta birostris, at the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. Ichthyological Research, 46(3), 289-296. doi:10.1007/BF02678515

Mobula Rays

  • Alexander, R. L. (1995). Evidence of a counter-current heat exchanger in the ray, Mobula tarapacana (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Myliobatiformes). Journal of Zoology, 237(3), 377-384. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1995.tb02768.x
  • Ari, C. (2011). Encephalization and Brain Organization of Mobulid ( Myliobatiformes , Elasmobranchii ) with Ecological Perspectives. Organization, 1-13.
  • Duffy, C. A. J., & Abbott, D. (2003). Sightings of mobulid rays from northern New Zealand, with confirmation of the occurrence of Manta birostris in New Zealand waters. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 37(4), 715-721.
  • Notarbartolo-di-sciara, G. (1988). Natural History of the Rays of the Genus Mobula in the Gulf of California. Fishery Bulletin, 86(1), 45-66.
  • Romanov, E. V. (2010). Mobulidae of the Indian Ocean : an identification hints for field sampling.
  • Sampson, L., Galván-Magaña, F., De Silva-Dávila, R., Aguíñiga-García, S., & O’Sullivan, J. B. (2010). Diet and trophic position of the devil rays Mobula thurstoni and Mobula japanica as inferred from stable isotope analysis. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 90(05), 969-976. doi:10.1017/S0025315410000548


  • Davies, R. W. D., Cripps, S. J., Nickson, a., & Porter, G. (2009). Defining and estimating global marine fisheries bycatch. Marine Policy, 33(4), 661-672. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2009.01.003
  • Dewar, H. (2002). Preliminary Report : Manta Harvest in Lamakera (pp. 1-3).
  • Dulvy, N., Baum, J., & Clarke, S. (2008). You can swim but you can’t hide: the global status and conservation of oceanic pelagic sharks and rays. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, 18, 459-482. doi:10.1002/aqc
  • Fernando, D., & Stevens, G. (2011). A Study of Sri Lanka’s Manta & Mobula Ray Fishery (pp. 1-29).
  • Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G. (1987). Myliobatiform rays fished in the Southern Gulf of California (Baja California Sur, Mexico) (Chondrichtyes:Myliobatiformes), 109-115.
  • Rajapackiam, S., Gomathy, & Jaiganesh, P. (2007). Devil ray Manta birostris landed at Chennai Fishing Harbour. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, 84, 29-30.
  • White, W. T., Giles, J., & Potter, I. C. (2006). Data on the bycatch fishery and reproductive biology of mobulid rays (Myliobatiformes) in Indonesia. Fisheries Research, 82(1-3), 65-73. doi:10.1016/j.fishres.2006.08.008


  • Anderson, R. C., Adam, M. S., Kitchen-Wheeler, A.-M., & Stevens, G. (2011). Extent and Economic Value of Manta Ray Watching in Maldives. Tourism in Marine Environments, 7(1), 15-27. doi:10.3727/154427310X12826772784793
  • Brooks, K. (2010). Investigating tourism at Hanifaru Bay marine protected area, Maldives. MSc Thesis. University of York.
  • Brooks, K., & Stevens, G. (2010). Developing Tourism at Hanifaru Bay Marine Protected Area (MPA) – Report for Maldivian Government (pp. 1-12).
  • Ward-Paige, C. a., & Lotze, H. K. (2011). Assessing the Value of Recreational Divers for Censusing Elasmobranchs. (M. Somers, Ed.)PLoS ONE, 6(10), e25609. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0025609
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(Number 1145387).

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